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The Koran & institutionalized anti-Semitism

The Koran is a great, inspiring work that motivates millions of people worldwide to prayer, good deeds and self improvement.  Jews especially should recognize and appreciate the monotheism and service to the God of Abraham.  Many Jewish scholars recognize that Jewish mysticism developed in Babylonia (modern day Iraq) shares many points in common with Islamic mysticism.  Theoretically there are many shared values and ideals between Judaism and Islam.

But in spite of the Koran being a holy, inspirational work, verses in the Koran and to some extent the Hadith-statements attributed to the Prophet Muhammad are being used for political purposes -- often by individuals and leaders who are not at all religious themselves.

In the Europe of almost a century ago, the Christian New Testament was used to justify official government & institutional hatred and bigotry.  Today the Koran is being twisted to turn latent anti-Jewish religious feeling into incitement and hated.  With ever increasing frequency these evil stereotypes are finding their way into official government publications and school curriculum.  Unlike the Christian New Testament, where anti-Jewish feeling was sometimes tempered by the knowledge that its authors were Jews, the Koran abounds in explicit anti-Jewish sentiment and finds no filial connection with the Jewish people.

The Arabs through persecution and anti-Semitism have 
helped to create the Jewish state

Arab propagandists, and sympathizers turn religious reproof into politics.  They persist in the charge that Israel is nothing more than a foreign outpost of Western civilization, the intruding offspring of Europe inhabited by European survivors of Nazi brutality.  Arab anti-Semitism is fed by dramatized notions of evil foreigners.

In actuality, Israel is only partially European. More than half of the people in Israel today are not "foreigners" to the Middle East, they are Jews or offspring of Jews who lived in Arab countries and have fled from Arab brutality; Israel's present population consists mainly of refugees and their descendants from two oppressions, European-Nazi and Arab. As the Arab writer Sabri Jiryis has acknowledged, either by official edict or by the Arab's own harsh mistreatment of the Jews among them, the Arab world has expelled or has caused Jews to flee to Israel. Were the facts popularly recognized, the Arab propaganda claim of a "European" Israel would long ago have been refuted. The Arabs through persecution and anti-Semitism have long helped to make the Jewish state predominantly an "Oriental" Israel of Jews from Arab lands.

Arab world's historical subjugation and mistreatment of Jews
attributed to the Prophet Muhammad

Determining to a great extent the Arab world's historical subjugation and mistreatment of Jews, the Koran, and to some extent the Hadith-statements attributed to the Prophet Muhammad-have been pivotal in creating the modem Jewish stereotype for Muslims.1 One Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad appeared in Egyptian publications in the 1930s and 1940s:
  • The resurrection of the dead will not come until the Muslims will war with the Jews and the Muslims will kill them; ... the trees and rocks will say, "O Muslim, O Abdullah, here is a Jew behind me, come and kill him."2
  • The holy writings of Islam also contain benign references to Jews, which often are cited to support the fantasy of "harmonious relations between Muslims and Jews in Arab lands." Wherever Jews have lived under Arab Islam, however, their conditions appear to have been determined by the negative images of Jews within the Hadith Reports and the Koran, the juridical source of Islamic law, images found in such statements as the following:
  • Ignominy shall be their portion [the Jews'] wheresoever they are found... They have incurred anger from their Lord, and wretchedness is laid upon them... because they disbelieve the revelations of Allah and slew the Prophets wrongfully... because they were rebellious and used to transgress.3

  • And thou wilt find them [the Jews] the greediest of mankind....4

  • Evil is that for which they sell their souls... For disbelievers is a terrible doom.5

  • Taste ye [Jews] the punishment of burning.6

  • Those who disbelieve Our revelations, We shall expose them to the fire. As often as their skins are consumed We shall exchange them for fresh skins that they may taste the torment.7

  • Because of the wrongdoing of the Jews.... And of their taking usury ... and of their devouring people's wealth by false pretenses. We have prepared for those of them who disbelieve a painful doom.8

  • Allah hath cursed them [the Jews] for their disbelief.9

  • They [the Jews] will spare no pains to corrupt you. They desire nothing but your ruin. Their hatred is clear from what they say, but more violent is the hatred which their breasts conceal.10

  • In truth the disbelievers are an open enemy to you.11

  • And thou seest [Jews and Christians] vying one with another in sin and transgression and their devouring of illicit gain. Verily evil is what they do. Why do not the rabbis and the priests forbid their evilspeaking and their devouring of illicit gain? .... evil is their handiwork.12

  • O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and Christians for friends.13

  • The most vehement of mankind in hostility [are] the Jews and the idolators.14

  • Fight against such of those [Jews and Christians] ... until they pay for the tribute readily, being brought low.15

  • Allah fighteth against them [the Jews]. How perverse they are!16

  • Believers, many are the rabbis and the monks who defraud men of their possessions... Proclaim a woeful punishment to those that hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah's cause.... their treasures shall be heated in the fire of Hell.... 17

  • They [the Jews] spread evil in the land .... 18

  • [The Jews] knowingly perverted [the word of Allah], know of nothing except lies ... commit evil and become engrossed in sin.19
  • Cairo "religious" conference in 1968

    Many of these words of holy hatred and others were repeated amid religious fervor at a Cairo "religious" conference in 1968.20 The tone of that conference Arab Theologians on Jews and Israel, was unambiguous. First the introductory remarks:
  • I welcome you in the name of Islam which gathered you under the banner of righteousness and good ... as active prominent scholars, and to reinforce through, you brotherhood in religion. [Dr. Mahmud Hubballah, Secretary General of the Islamic Research Academy]21
  • Then the proceedings, including the following unbrotherly interpretations:
  • The Jews ... had resorted to their former policy and thus they deserved to be called, the worst of beasts in the Quran ...

  • They are characterized by avarice and many other vices.... [Sheikh Abd Allah Al Meshad]22

  • ... it behoves us to refer to the distortion of the Jewish creed that filled the life of Jews with perfidy and evil....

  • Islamic tolerance is in complete contrast with Jewish intolerance and cruelty

  • ... I should like to say before I conclude that I have thoroughly scrutinized the nature of the Jews. They are avaricious, ruthless, cruel, hypocrite and revengeful. These traits govern their lives. [Mohammed Taha Yahia]23

  • The Jews' wicked nature never changes.... Evil, wickedness, breach of vows and money worship are inherent qualities in them. Many a time were they punished for their evil, but they never repented or gave up their sinfulness. [Kamal Ahman Own, Vice-Principal, Tanta Institute]24
  • Against the turbulent, uncertain, and unmistakably iniquitous background of the Arab world's Jewry, it is commonly claimed that the Jews were, during certain periods in the Arab lands, "better off" than they were in Christian lands of Europe. They were not burnt in ovens, and perhaps in part because more twentieth-century Arab-bom Jews escaped with their lives, however subjugated, many contemporary Jews have romanticized their historical relations with the Arabs.

    Brutal facts have been replaced by crueler fiction

    Somehow the brutal facts have been replaced by crueler fiction. Even some Jewish historians -- who have themselves placed time and cause of Arab persecution, who have themselves chronicled a detailed calendar of horrors over many centuries in their own works -- even these historians have demonstrated an inability to fathom or, perhaps, to accept the implications of the history they themselves have uncovered. Thus, among the presentations of documented Arab atrocities perpetrated against the Jews, there is in some volumes a recurrent theme of the particular author's discomfort with the subject and his findings, and even a peculiar sort of apologia for having bared them. "Although the slaughter was violently anti-Jewish, we cannot say that this was true anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitisin did not exist historically in Arab countries." The problem lies in the susceptibility to misinterpretation, in the risk of being taken literally-but out of context. In the example just quoted above, the "fact" that might remain in the reader's mind is "Anti-Semitism did not exist historically in Arab countries." Although one or two or a dozen experts might understand that the writer was making an obtuse differentiation, the vast majority of readers, using the work for superficial reference or information, might be expected to perpetuate the myth further.

    Official Position of the Arab Ministries of Education

    Numerous official Arab Ministry of Education materials have been produced to prepare the present adult Arab generation for its continuation of "harmony" among Arabs and Jews.

    The following are a few examples from publications officially distributed by the Ministries of Education in various Arab countries:25

    The anti-Semitic literature published by the Arabs since World War II has been voluminous, and is continually increasing, despite the almost total evacuation of the Arab world's Jews .27 The virulence of this literature is disturbing, but even more significant is the official or governmental origin of the publications-not from an extremist fringe, which might be lightly dismissed, but from Arab governments, including those called "moderate."

    Report on Palestinian Authority School Books

    The Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace Report28: The books reviewed in this report are published by the Palestinian Authority (PA) Ministry of Education. One privately published book is also included: an atlas published in 1998, which was approved by the PA. With this one exception, all the text books quoted in this report are published officially by the Palestinian Authority Ministry of Education and are used in their schools.

    A. Abusive terminology

    Overview A telling measure of a government's genuine interest in peace is the intensity with which it acts to replace hateful stereotypes with positive attitudes. Thus, it is disturbing that the following abusive terminology for Israelis, Jews and Israeli characteristics is being used in Palestinian Authority school books and being aired on Palestinian Authority television. [All sources and context appear later in the report.]
    Palestinian Authority School Books
    Jews, Israelis and Israelis are:
    Wild animals
    Jewish aggressors
    Thieving conquerors
    Thieving enemy
    Enemy of prophets and believers

    Israel and Israeli characteristics include:
    A provocation to the Arab world
    A racist Jewish administration
    Zionist enemy
    Occupied Palestine
    Israeli danger
    Zionist entity
    Zionist greed
    Zionist occupation

    The map that replaces all of Israel is: Palestine
    Israeli regions cities and towns are: "Israeli settlements in Galilee in northern Palestine"
    Israel’s Negev is: "Southern Palestine"

    Palestinian Authority Television
    Jews, Israelis and Israelis are:

    Israel and Israeli characteristics include:
    Israeli entity
    Zionist entity
    Jewish gangs

    The map that replaces all of Israel is: Palestine

    B. The Evil Enemy

    Palestinian Authority school children are actively taught that the Jews and Israel are the enemy, in a broad range of contexts. The school texts portray the Jew as the enemy of believers, the enemy of Islam, the enemy of the Arabs, as well as generally evil and dangerous. Jews are killers and robbers and have stolen Arab land. Modern events are misrepresented to portray Israel and Jews as the evil force in their world. Zionism is equated to Nazism, together they are depicted as the prototype examples of racism. These themes also appear regularly on PA television. Islamic Sources Used to Create Stereotype  At times, the hateful portrayal is based on Islamic sources. The children are taught to apply the traditional narratives to hateful teachings regarding Jews and Israelis today. Five examples:
  • "I learn from this lesson: I believe that the Jews are the enemies of the Prophets and the believers." [Islamic Education, Part Two, for Fourth Grade p. 67]
  • "From the Uhud expedition… a number of lessons can be learned…: Treachery and disloyalty are character traits of the Jews and therefore one should beware of them." [Islamic Education for Ninth Grade p. 87]
  • "The Jews adopted a position of hostility and deception towards the new religion. They called Muhammad a liar and denied him, they fought against his religion in all ways and by all means, a war that has not yet ended until today, and they conspired with the hypocrites and the idolaters against him and they are still behaving in the same way…" [Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #564 p. 125]
  • "In many cases these Jews acted according to their known cunning and deceit, and they fomented wars [between Arab tribes]…[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade # 589 p. 78]
  • "Lessons to be learned: One must beware of civil war, which the Jews try to foment, and of their scheming against the Muslims." [Ibid. p. 94]
  • Misrepresentation of Modern Events
  • Modern events are misrepresented to portray Israel as active in an ongoing attack against Islam and the Arabs. Two examples: In 1969 an Australian [non-Jew] set the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem on fire. Yet, the children are taught that Israel did it.  "This arson is a further chapter in the Zionist plot, whose aim is to take control of this Islamic holy place, the Dome of the Rock and the whole area of the Jerusalem sanctuary and to destroy all that is holy to Islam." [Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #578 p. 97]
  • The Zionist movement has never called for the expulsion of Israel's Arab citizens. Yet the books teach that Zionism calls for this "expulsion":

  • "Zionism is a political, aggressive and colonialist movement, which calls for the Judaisation of Palestine by the expulsion of its Arab inhabitants … [Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part Two, for Tenth Grade#613 p. 49]

    C. Denial of Jewish Nationhood

    The Palestinian Authority education has made Jews disappear from all contexts in Israel that are not negative and have even fabricated viciously racist statements, attributing them to Jewish sources. PA books describe Muslim and Christian religious, historical, and archaeologicalsites but omit any reference to Jewish sites. Tourists who visit are Christian and Muslim but there is no mention of the Jewish tourists. The Western Wall of the Temple is called "al-Buraq Wall" but there is no mention of its Jewish history. A history book describes World War II, Hitler and Nazi racism while ignoring the Jews and the Holocaust. ["World History on Modern Times for Eighth Grade" #586 pp. 34-45]

    D. Israel Must Be Fought by Waging Jihad (Holy War)

    Call to Fight Israel The calls to fight and eliminate Israel through Jihad (Holy War) and Martyrdom for Allah, appear frequently in the PA school books. In addition there is a separate recurring theme: the children are taught to fight and conquer Israel's capital, Jerusalem.

    G. Israel's capital, Jerusalem, is called: the capital of the "State of Palestine"

    The Palestinian Authority school books teach their children that an independent "State of Palestine" already exists, independence day is celebrated yearly, and Israel's capital Jerusalem, is said to be the capital of "Palestine". Some examples: Palestinian Authority Television Israeli cities are presented as Palestinian cities on PA TV, as well. A young girl recited this on a children's program:
  • "…The land is my land here is my house and I will build it… with my blood I shall water it… Haifa and Jaffa [part of Tel Aviv] and the land of Lod Jerusalem calls out and that's Acre calling for us… In the Galilee we have a sister whom we salute… and if Ashkelon calls out go find her… shall we neglect the Galilee and Beer Sheva?" [PA television March 3, 1998]
  • A girl accuses Israel, the reference being to Israel of 1948 and not to the West Bank and Gaza. "Do you know what happened in 1948? They took everything! They emptied the room, broke the houses, they set fire to the forests, they changed the names… my country's name is Palestine." [PA television, numerous broadcasts May 1998]  7.  Israel's capital, Jerusalem, is called: the capital of the "State of Palestine".
  • II. Education to Jihad - Holy War and Martyrdom

    Education to Jihad (Holy War)  Palestinian Authority (PA) school books praise and encourage the waging of Jihad - Holy War.
  •  "Jihad for Allah is one of the greatest commandments and duties of Islam, the purpose of which is to establish Allah's rule on Earth… Jihad is not an issue of need, necessary only at certain times, rather, it is an ever-present necessity which a Muslim society must never relinquish. Its abandonment brings weakness and humiliation and invites aggression." [Islamic Education for Twelfth Grade # 641 p. 284, 139]
  • Fighting is the highest level of Jihad: "Jihad with of one's life: This is by fighting enemies… This is the highest level of Jihad because the Jihad fighter sacrifices himself in accordance with Allah's way for the sake of his religion and to defend his nation...  [Islamic Education for Seventh Grade, #564 p. 107]
  • The reward for Jihad: "The reward for shooting an arrow for Allah covers not only the archer, but also him, who made the arrow, as well as him who handed it to the archer…" [Islamic Education for Twelfth Grade # 641 p. 319]
  • "The Muslim believes in Allah and His Messenger and fights a Jihad for Allah with property and his life in order to please Allah and to earn a place in paradise on the day of resurrection… "  [Islamic Education for Seventh Grade, #564 p. 129]
  • The punishment for shirking Jihad: "These verses prove the superiority that is in Jihad for Allah's sake... and warned against evading a Jihad for Allah. …and a warning to the Muslims not to defy His word nor refrain from Jihad..." [Islamic Education for Seventh Grade, #564 p. 124]
  • "Islam has forbidden flight from the battle and regards this as a grave sin.  [Islamic Education for Eighth Grade #576 p. 176]
  • Jihad is promoted not only in books on Islamic studies, but in grammar, literature and civic studies as well: "Determine what is the subject, and what is the predicate, in the following sentences: - The Jihad is a religious duty of every Muslim man and woman." Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade. # 542, p. 167]
  • Education to Martyrdom  PA text books glorify Martyrdom as an ideal to be sought. The fortunate are those who are killed - reaching "Martyrdom". Numerous poems encourage the children to see themselves as future Jihad fighters seeking Martyrdom. Many school book poems have the word "Martyr" in their title, including the following poem which is in at least two grammar books [the children are instructed to learn the poem by heart] and was broadcast three times recently on PA television, read by different children.

    Selections for in depth study from Palestinian Authority school books

    The appendix includes the text material that appeared in the report, often in greater context, as well as additional selections of interest.

    Obligation to fight against Israel.

    Instruction to fight for Israel's capital, Jerusalem Hostile portrayal of Jews, Israelis, and Israel.
  • The clearest examples of racist belief and racial discrimination in the world are Nazism and Zionism. [The Contemporary History of the Arabs and the World,  P. 123]
  • 2. Understanding the racist and aggressive character of the Zionist Movement.           6. Summary of the similarity between Nazism, Fascism and Zionism. [The Contemporary History of the Arabs and the World,  P. 92]
  • Fabrication of a racist supposedly "Talmudic quote" It is mentioned in the Talmud: "We [the Jews] are God's people on earth…[God] forced upon the human animal and upon all the nations and the races that they serve us, and He spread us through the world to ride on them and hold their reigns. We must marry our beautiful daughters with kings, ministers and lords and enter our sons into the various religions, thus, we will have the final word in managing the countries. We should cheat them [the non-Jews] and arouse quarrels among them, then they fight each other… Non Jews are pigs who God created in the shape of man in order that they be fit for service for the Jews, and God created the world for them [the Jews]."  [The Contemporary History of the Arabs and the World,  P. 120]
  • The difference between Zionism and Imperialism: Zionism Imperialism Zionism is not linked to land or country Colonies are an extension of the motherland A tool for establishing a non-existent State A tool and means for serving a state which exists in effect Believes in the elimination of the original inhabitants Imperialistic behavior has not gone as far as the elimination of original inhabitants. Settlement based on the foundation of  false religious and historical rights Based on foundations of economic interests [The Contemporary History of the Arabs and the World,  P. 123]
  • Some Deviant Trends: Racism: ... Mankind has suffered from this evil both in ancient as well as in modern times, for, indeed, Satan has, in the eyes of many people, made their evil actions appear beautiful until they thought that their race was the best of all and their kind better than all others, and that other people are their slaves and do not reach their level. Such a people are the Jews… Islamic Education for Eighth Grade  #576 [p. 95]
  • Heroism and Sacrifice: Islam the True Religion Denial of Israeli legitimacy and Jewish History 5. Promotion of Jihad and Martyrdom Glorification of Personal Examples of Jihad and Martyrdom Numerous excerpts from the following text book have been translated to demonstrate the treatment of Jihad and Martyrdom. The following text are typical of the entire book.

    The fall of the West and its replacement by Islam

    8. Additional texts of Interest

    IV. The Palestinian Authority Educational System

    1.   Background

                 During the years of Israeli Administration of the West Bank and Gaza Strip [1967 - 1994] the educational curriculum as well as the degrees issued were Jordanian and Egyptian. Israel did, however, remove from these Jordanian and Egyptian text books words and sentences that were anti-Semitic, called for Israel's destruction or called for violence against Israel. Following a complaint lodged by Jordan and Egypt that Israel was changing curricula in contravention of the Geneva convention, a UN investigative committee ruled in Israel's favor, that striking out        terms offensive to Jews and Israel from the school books, was lawful.

    2.   Current System

                 In 1994 Israel and the Palestinian Authority [PA] signed the "Early Empowerment Agreement" transferring "powers and responsibilities in the sphere of education" to the PA. In January of 1995, Jordan and the PA agreed that the PA could continue to choose Jordanian educational material for at least three years, publishing new PA school books based on this material, and making it the basis for the unified PA curriculum which Jordan would recognize. Today all the students in the Palestinian Autonomous areas are using books published officially by the Palestinian Authority, some based on Jordanian and Egyptian and some completely new books. Yassir Arafat is the current PA Minister of Education.

    3.     Development

                 In 1995 the PA Ministry of Education established the "Palestinian Curriculum Development Center" then headed by Ibrahim Abu Lughod, a former head of the pro-Arab lobby in the US. The center was to develop a unified curriculum by 1999 that would emphasize Palestinian identity. The curriculum would have to be acceptable to both Jordan and Egypt as theses countries are reluctant to recognize diplomas based on curriculum they do not approve. In addition the texts are to be in the spirit of the Oslo accords and "Cairo Agreement" and  "ensure that their educational systems contribute to the peace between Israel and the Palestinian people." The center was to be independent. However, in 1997, Lughod quit as head of the center, and it is now within the PA Ministry of Education.

                 The first series of new text books entitled "Palestinian National Education" developed by the center and introduced into the PA school system, was written by a group of 27 authors.

    Strategy of Peace?
    Ariel Center For Policy Research (ACPR)
    Full-Page Ad, Ha'aretz, May 30, 2000 29

    "Israel Emulates the Nazis" is the title of an anti-semitic cartoon, published on February 21, 2000, by the most official Syrian daily in the midst of the Syrian-Israeli negotiation.  The cartoon presents Barak as a Hitler look-alike, wearing a Swastika and a Star of David. (cartoon is not attached since I wanted to spare you downloading time...).




    The Nazis attacked the Jews because of


    1. The aforementioned quotations express the official sentiment in Damascus -- rather than a marginal extremism -- which has not changed with the start of peace negotiations.
    2. The quotations were taken from a study by The Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace, which is based on 85 current Syrian textbooks.
    3. The Syrian school textbooks reflect the strategy of the Syrian leadership more than official Syrian statements and interviews to the media and to politicians in Israel and the U.S.  The textbooks shape Syrian society's long-term worldview.
    4. The textbooks -- like the official Syrian media  express a strategy that regards the Jews, Zionism, and Israel as the enemies of Islam, the Arabs, and humanity, illegitimate and immoral entities that must be wiped out.
    5. PLO school textbooks and media carry the exact same messages.

    1.  Phillip K. Hitti, The Arabs, A Short History (Princeton, 1943), p. 126; also see Bernard Lewis, The Arabs in History, p. 36.  The Arab Position in the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Ema-

    2. Professor Yehoshafat Harkabil ray) (Tel Aviv, 1968), p. 25o. cited in Moshe dat Halaravint besikhsukh Israel-A Ma'oz, The Image of the Jew in official Arab Literature and Communications Media (The Institute of Contemporary Jewry: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1976), P. 14. His Eminence Sheikh Nadim Al-Jisr, Member of the Islamic Research Academy, cited several more versions of this hadith in his presentation at the Fourth Conference of the Academy,  "Good Tidings about the Decisive Battle Between Muslims and Israel, in the Light of the Holy Quran, the Prophetic Traditions, and the Fundamental Laws of Nature and History."  "In Muslim's Sahih, is reported on the authority of Ibn'Umar that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had said, 'Verily., you will combat against the Jews, so carry through the fight, until a stone would say: 0 Muslim This is a Jew; come along and smite him down.'  "In another version of this Hadith, reported also on the authority of Ibn'Umar, the Prophet-P.B.U H.-had said, 'The Jews will combat against you. But you will be given power over them, until the stone would say: "0 Muslim! This is a Jew lying behind me; come and do away with him."' Abu Huraira . . . 'The Hour would "In a third version ... on the authority of  never rise until Muslims fight against the Jews. Muslims would despatch them. The Jews would hide themselves behind stones and trees which would say: "0 Muslim Servant of God! There are Jews behind me; come and kill them."' "In Bukhari's Sahih ... on the authority of Abdullah Ibn'Umar ... you will take up arms against the Jews, until one of them would lie concealed behind a stone which would say, '0 Muslim, Servant of God! This is a Jew lying behind me; come and kill him.", "It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet ... has said, 'The Hour would not come, until you fight against the Jews; and the stone would say, "0 Muslim! There is a Jew behind me; come and kill him."' D.F. Green notes: " 'The Hour' is the resurrection i.e. the final salvation. Its arnval is made conditional upon the battle against the Jews that has to precede it." Green, Arab Theologians, p. 45.

    3. Surah 111, v. 112, The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, an explanatory translation by
    Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall (New York: Mentor Books, 1953). Also see The Koran, trans. with notes by N.J. Dawood (England: Penguin Books, rev. ed, 19 8 1), in which the translations are listed chronologically rather than by surah number, clearly illustrating that the anti-Jewish and anti-Christian implorations were introduced after Jews and Christians had refused to embrace Islam above their own religion. The themes illustrated in the text also are frequently reiterated with slight variations.

    4. Surah 11, v. 96, ibid.

    5. Surah II, v. 90, ibid.

    6. Surah III, v. 18 1, ibid., referring to the Jews of Medina. Two examples of the frequent
    variation on this theme in the Koran:

    Surah IX, v. 35: "Proclaim a woeful punishment to those that hoard up gold and silver.... Their treasures shall be heated in the dres of Hell, and their foreheads, sides and backs branded with them. . . . 'Taste then the punishment which is your due.",

    Surah 111, v. 117-120: "They [the Jews] are the heirs of Hell.... They will spare no pains to corrupt you. They desire nothing but your ruin. Their hatred is clear from what they say ... When evil befalls you they rejoice." Ibid.

    7. Surah IV, v. 56, ibid.

    8. Surah IV, v. 160, 161, ibid.

    9. Surah IV, v. 46, ibid.

    10. Surah III, v. 117-120, Dawood trans.

    11. Surah IV, v. 101, Pickthall trans.

    12. Surah V, v. 62, 63, ibid.

    13. Surah V, v. 51, ibid.

    14. Surah V, v. 82, ibid.

    15. Surah IX, v. 29, ibid.

    16. Surah IX, v. 30, ibid.

    17. Surah IX, v. 26-34, Dawood trans.

    18. Surah V, v. 62-66, ibid.

    19. Surah II, v. 71-85, ibid.

    20. The Fourth Conference of the Academy of Islamic Research, Cairo, September 1968.

    21.Quoted from Dr. Mahmud Hubballah, Secretary General of the Islamic Research Academy, speech delivered on the inauguration of the Academy's Fourth Conference, in Green, Arab Theologians, p. 11. According to Green, "Seventy-seven Muslims, Ulemas and invited guests participated in the Conference. I gather that some of the proceedings were reproduced immediately after the conference in Majallat al-Azhar, the University's monthly. The complete transactions of this conference were then published in 1970 in Arabic (3 volumes) [Al-Azhar, Ma/ma'al-Buhut al-Islamiyya, Kitab al-Mutamar al-Rabi' li-majma al-Buhuth al-Islamiyya. The original volume has no copyright], and in English (I volume, 935 pp.) In the latter, it is stated on the front page that the book was printed by the U.A.R. Government Printing Office, which signifies government support. The efforts involved by the authorities to have these transactions translated into English indicate . . . their decision to propagate to the world the views contained in this volume." Green explains that the order of "extracts" has been "modified in order to group together similar subjects. Repetitions by the authors have been retained in a few cases. The reader will thus be in a better position to decide whether the views are mere eccentricities of one sage, or more common conceptions." (Introduction, p. 1.)

    22. Quoted from Sheikh Abd Allah Al Meshad, "Jews' Attitude Toward Islam and Muslims in the First Islamic Era," in Green, Arab Theologians, p. 21.

    23. Quoted from Mohammed Taha Yahia, "The Attitude of the Jews Toward Islam and Muslims in the Early Days of Islam" in ibid., p. 19.

    24. Quoted from Kamal Ahmad Own, Vice-Principal, Tanta Institute, "The Jews are the Enemies of Human Life as Evident from their Holy Book," in ibid., p. 16-17.
    31. Israel-Benjamin (11), Cinq Annies de Voyage en Orient 1846-1851 (Algeria, 1855), p. XXVIII, cited by David Littman, Protected Peoples Under Islam (Geneva, 1975), pp. 2-3.

    25. Excerpted from conversation on January 13, 195 1, as reported by Arif al-Arif, from his series "Al-Nakba, Nakbat Beit Al-Maqdis Walfirdaus Al Mafqud," 1947-1955, vol. IV (Al-Maktaba Al-Asriyya Littiba Wal-Nashr, n.d., intro. dated 12/l/59), p.  893.

    26. Amman radio, September 22, 1967, cited by Y. Harkabi, Arab Attitudes to Israel (Jerusalem, 1971), pp. 295-296.

    27. Except where otherwise indicated, the excerpts are from "Hatred is Sacred, " Extracts from Arab School Texts, E. Hess, comp. (Jerusalem: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, n.d.).

    28. The Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace, Report on Palestinian Authority School Books,

    29 "Strategy of Peace?", Ariel Center For Policy Research (ACPR), Full-Page Ad, Ha'aretz, May 30, 2000

    This page was produced by Joseph E. Katz
    Middle Eastern Political and Religious History Analyst
    Brooklyn, New York
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