Muftism and Nazism: World War II Collaboration
Vienna, Austria 1939
PLO Daily "Intifada"
December 14, 20001
Creating a land "Free of Jews"
After World War II, many of both European
and Arab states, as illustrated in the tables above, have been rendered
virtually judenrein (free of Jews-Hitler's term), in spite of the thriving
populations in both European and Arab states prior to the war.
The Jewish Population
Estimated Jewish Population
In Arab Countries 3
|Of more than 9,654,000 Jews
in Europe before W.W.II, less than half remain. in spite of the fact that
several tens of thousands returned to Europe after the war. Approximately
6 million Jews were killed by the Nazi's as the British reduced immigration
quotas to "the Jewish National Homeland" to a token amount.
||Of more than 850,000 Jews
in Arab lands before Israel's statehood, fewer than 29,000 remain, the
vast majority fleeing to Israel fleeing religious persecution.
Saudi Arabia has been excluded from the chart
because Jews have long been forbidden to enter, much less live in what
has been deemed "moderate" Saudi Arabia -- with the notable exceptions
of Henry Kissinger, when he was the United States Secretary of State; Secretary
of Defense Harold Brown in 1979; and perhaps a few selected Jewish academicians,
businessmen, or journalists. Saudi Arabia, where thriving and influential
communities of Arabian Jews existed at the time of Islam's creation in
the seventh century,4 has maintained a "moderate"
policy that totally excludes Jews. As the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to The
Hague said, upon Dutch Foreign Minister Max Van Der Stoel's proposed visit
to Saudi Arabia in 1975,
No Jewish journalist will be allowed
into Saudi Arabia to cover Mr. Van Der Stoel's visit.... Official policy
has always been to refuse entry to Jews because they support Israel as
Noting the bigotry inherent in the Saudis'
avowed institutionalized discriminatory practices, Foreign Minister Van
Der Stoel canceled that visit. He advised the Dutch Parliament that
The government of Saudi Arabia
has informed me that it will not issue an entry visa for the Netherlands
journalist representing Vrij Nederland Naturally, every government
has the right to decide which foreigners it wishes to allow into its country.
On the other hand, I want to emphasize that the government of the Netherlands
utterly rejects any form of discrimination on the grounds of race or religion,6
which might form the basis for granting such an entry permit.7
That same month, a London journalist reported
that, during his visit to Saudi Arabia,
My guide insists on giving me
a copy of that horrifying old forgery about the Jews' plot to conquer the
Arabs: The Protocol of the Elders of Zion. It turns out that all
visiting journalists are given it.8
The Kingdom of Jordan
The Kingdom of Jordan also has been excluded
from the table, because no Jews lived there in 1948, although the Jewish
presence in the major portion of Palestine -- which is presently "Jordan"
-- had existed long before the seventh-century creation of Islam. In fact,
many of the Jews who had survived Muslim-led massacres in Arabia, only
to be expelled in the seventh century from their lands in the Arabian Peninsula,
had fled and found refuge in the large Jewish settlements of Eastern Palestine
[See further discussions in Chapters 8 and 12] -- more than a thousand
years before that eastern territory of mandated Palestine became perceived
as a separate "kingdom" of "'Transjordan" in 1922.
"the West Bank"
Jews who had dwelt on historical Palestinian
terrain both east of the Jordan River and in the area called "the West
Bank" were driven out of that land's Arab-dominated towns over the past
half century by sporadic pogroms and pillage, so that by the 1940s the
Palestinian towns in Transjordan and the West Bank were considered "purely
Arab" -- already purged of their former Jewish population. The Jews once
living in the area of Palestine known as Jordan and the West Bank had become
"Palestinian Jewish refugees" as the result of Arab violence. And the fact
that there are Jewish "Palestinian refugees" of twentieth-century vintage
is overlooked even in Israel. These refugees found safety only in
the predominantly Jewish-settled areas of Palestine's coastal plain, which
today is Israel. By 1948, the more than seventy-five percent of Palestine
that the British had allocated to the Arabs as "Transjordan" already had
been efficiently purged of all Jews, through periodic Arab onslaughts upon
the various long-established Jewish communities. Despite that fact, the
Jordanian government's nationality law of 1954 sought to safeguard its
would-be racial purity: According to that law "Palestinian" living in Jordan
was entitled to Jordanian citizenship unless he as a Jew.9
Muftism and Nazism: World War II Collaboration.
(examples of original correspondence)
1) U.S. Confirms Role of Mufti as Nazi Middle
OFFICE OF U.S. CHIEF OF COUNSEL
FOR PROSECUTION OF AXIS CRIMINALITY
Source:The Arab Higher Committee, Its Origins,
Personnel and Purposes, The Documentary Record Submitted to The United
Nations, May 1947, by Nations Associates.
17 September 1945
Source of Original OKW Files, Flensburg
LEADS: CANARIS, IBN SAUD, GRAND MUFTI.
SUMMARY OF RELEVANT POINTS (with page
1. Only through the funds made available
by Germany to the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was it possible to carry out
the revolt in Palestine. (Page 1).
2. Germany will keep up the connection
with the Grand Mufti. Weapons will be stored for the Mufti with Ibn Saud
in Arabia. (Page 2).
3. Ibn Saud himself has close connections
with the Grand Mufti and the revolting circles in TransJordan. (Page 2).
4. To be able to carry out our work
one of Germany's agents will be placed in Cairo (Page 3).
5. The document is undated but obviously
written before the outbreak of the war in 1939. It is not signed.
Doc. No. 792-PS
2) Summons to a Intifada
* Translated from:-"Oriente Modemo," 1941,
pp. 552-553; broadcast over the 'Iraqi and Axis radios.
A "Fatwa " Issued by Haj Amin al-Husseini10,
In the name of Merciful and Almighty
Source:The Arab War Effort-A Documentary Account
The American Christian Palestine Committee (New York, n.d.).
I invite all my Moslem brothers throughout
the whole world to join in the Holy War for God, for the defense of Islam
and her lands against her enemy. O Faithful, obey and respond to my call.
Proud 'Iraq has placed herself in the vanguard
of this Holy Struggle, and has thrown herself against the strongest enemy
of Islam certain that God will grant her victory.
The English have tried to seize this Arab-Moslem
land, but she has risen, full of dignity and pride to defend her
safety, to fight for her honor and to safeguard her integrity. 'Iraq fights
the tyranny which has always had as its aim the destruction of Islam in
every land. It is the duty of all Moslems to aid 'Iraq in her struggle
and to seek every means to fight the enemy, the traditional traitor in
every age and every situation.
Whoever knows the history of the East has
everywhere seen the hand of the English working to destroy the Ottoman
Empire and to divide the Arab countries. British politics toward the Arab
people is masked under a veil of Hypocrisy. The minute she sees her chance,
England squeezes the prostrate country in her Imperialist grasp, adding
futile justifications. She creates discord and division within a country
and while feeding it in secret openly she assumes the role of advisor and
trusted hiend. The time when England could deceive the peoples of the East
is passed. The Arab Nation and the Moslem people have awakened to fight
British domination. The English have overthrown the Ottoman Empire, have
destroyed Moslem rule in India, inciting one community against another;
they stifled the Egyptian awakening, the dream of Mohammed Ali, colonizing
Egypt for half a century. They took advantage of the weakening of the Ottoman
Empire to stretch out their hands and use every sort of trick to take possession
of many Arab countries as happened to Aden, the 9 Districts, the Hadramut,
Oman, Masqat and the Emirates of the Persian Gulf and Transjordania. The
vivid proof of the imperialistic designs of the British is to be found
in Moslem Palestine which, although promised by England to Sheriff Hussein
has had to submit to the outrageous infiltration of Jews, shameful politics
designed to divide Arab-Moslem countries of Asia from those of Africa.
In Palestine the English have committed unheard of barbarisms; among others,
they have profaned the el-Aqsa Mosque and have declared the most unyielding
war against Islam, both in deed and in word. The Prime Minister at that
time told Parliament that the world would never see peace as long as the
Koran existed. What hatred against Islam is stronger than that which publicly
declares the Sacred Koran an enemy of human kind? Should such sacrilege
go unpunished? After the dissolution of the Moslem Empire in India and
of the Ottoman Caliphate, England, adhering to the policy of Gladstone,
pursued her work of destruction to Islam depriving many Islamic States
both in the East and in the West of their freedom and independence. The
number of Moslems who today live under the rule of England and invoke liberation
from their terrible yoke exceeds 220,000,000.
Therefore I invite you, O Brothers, to
join in the War for God to preserve Islam, your independence and your lands
from English aggression. I invite you to bring all your weight to bear
in helping 'Iraq that she may throw off the shame that torments her. O
Heroic 'Iraq, God is with Thee, the Arab Nation and the Moslem World are
solidly with Thee in Thy Holy Struggle!
3) The Mufti's Diary on His Meeting with Hitler
At the eve of the "final solution"
to the "Jewish Problem",
the Mufti (Yasser Arafat's father's
brother) and Adolf Hitler confer
in Berlin, November 21, 1941
Haj Amin al Husseini, recording in his
own handwriting his meeting with Hitler in his diary, says:
The words of the Fuehrer on the
6th of Zul Qaada 1360 of the Hejira (which falls on the 21st of November
1941) Berlin, Friday, from 4:30 P.M. till a few minutes after 6. The objectives
of my fight are clear. Primarily, I am fighting the Jews without respite,
and this fight includes the fight against the so-called Jewish National
Home in Palestine because the Jews want to establish there a central government
for their own pernicious purposes, and to undertake a devastating and ruinous
expansion at the expense of the govemments of the world and of other peoples.
It is clear that the Jews have accomplished
nothing in Palestine and their claims are lies. All the accomplishments
in Palestine are due to the Arabs and not to the Jews. I am resolved to
find a solution for the Jewish problem, progressing step by step without
cessation. With regard to this I am making the necessary and right appeal,
first to all the European countries and then to countries outside of Europe.
It is true that our common enemies are
Great Britain and the Soviets whose principles are opposed to ours. But
behind them stands hidden Jewry which drives them both. Jewry has but one
aim in both these countries. We are now in the midst of a life and death
struggle against both these nations. This fight will not only determine
the outcome of the struggle between National Socialism and Jewry, but the
whole conduct of this successful war will be of great and positive help
to the Arabs who are engaged in the same struggle.
This is not only an abstract assurance.*
A mere promise would be of no value whatsoever. But assurance which rests
upon a conquering force is the only one which has real value. In the Iraqi
campaign, for instance, the sympathy of the whole German people was for
Iraq. It was our aim to help Iraq, but circumstances prevented us from
fumishing actual help. The German people saw in them (in the Iraqis-Ed.)
comrades in suffering because the German people too have suffered as they
have. All the help we gave Iraq was not sufficient to save Iraq from the
British forces. For this reason it is necessary to underscore one thing:
in this struggle which will decide the fate of the Arabs I can now speak
as a man dedicated to an ideal and as a military leader and a soldier.
Everyone united in this great struggle who helps to bring about its successful
outcome, serves the common cause and thus serves the Arab cause. Any other
view means weakening the military situation and thus offers no help to
the Arab cause. Therefore it is necessary for us to decide the steps which
can help us against world Jewry, against Communist Russia and England,
and which among them can be most useful. Only if we win the war will the
hour of deliverance also be the hour of fulfillment of Arab aspirations.
The situation is as follows: We are conducting
the great struggle to open the way to the North of the Caucasus. The difficulties
involved are more than transportation because of the demolished railways
and roads and because of winter weather. And if I venture in these circumstances
to issue a declaration with regard to Syria, then the pro-de Gaulle elements
in France will be strengthened and this might cause a revolt in France.
These men (the French) will be convinced then that joining Britain is more
advantageous and the detachment of Syria is a pattern to be followed in
the remainder of the French Empire. This will strengthen de Gaulle's stand
in the colonies. If the declaration is issued now, difficulties will arise
in Western Europe which will cause the diversion of some (German-Ed.) forces
for defensive purposes, thus preventing us from sending all our forces
to the East.
Now I am going to tell you something I
would like you to keep secret. First, I will keep up my fight until the
complete destruction of the Judeo-Bolshevik rule has been accomplished.
Second, during the struggle (and we don't
know when victory will come, but probably not in the far future) we will
reach the Southern Caucasus.
Third, then I would like to issue a declaration;
for then the hour of the liberation of the Arabs will have arrived. Germany
has no ambitions in this area but cares only to annihilate the power which
produces the Jews.
Fourth, I am happy that you have escaped
and that you are now with the Axis powers. The hour will strike when you
will be the lord of the supreme word and not only the conveyer of our declarations.
You will be the man to direct the Arab force and at that moment I cannot
imagine what would happen to the Western peoples.
Fifth, I think that with this Arab advance
begins the dismemberment of the British world. The road from Rostov to
Iran and Iraq is shorter than the distance from Berlin to Rostov. We hope
next year to smash this barrier. It is better then and not now that a declaration
should be issued as (now) we cannot help in anything.
I understand the Arab desire for this (declaration-Ed.),
but His Excellency the Mufti must understand that only five years after
I became President of the German government and Fuehrer of the German people,
was I able to get such a declaration (the Austrian Union-Ed.), and this
because military forces prevented me from issuing such a declaration. But
when the German Panzer tanks and the German air squadrons reach the Southern
Caucasus, then will be the time to issue the declaration.
He said (in reply to a request that a secret
declaration or a treaty be made) that a declaration known to a number of
persons cannot remain secret but will become public. I (Hitler) have made
very few declarations in my life, unlike the British who have made many
declarations. If I issue a declaration, I will uphold it. Once I promised
the Finnish Marshal that I would help his country if the enemy attacks
again. This word of mine made a stronger impression than any written declaration.
Recapitulating, I want to state the following
to you: When we shall have arrived in the Southern Caucasus, then the time
of the liberation of the Arabs will have arrived. And you can rely on my
We were troubled about you. I know your
life history. I followed with interest your long and dangerous journey.
I was very concerned about you. I am happy that you are with us now and
that you are now in a position to add your strength to the common cause.
*This is a reply to the insistent request
of the Multi for an Axis declaration to the Arabs.
Source: The Arab Higher Committee ....
The Documentary Record.
4) Ribbentrop Promises Mufti to Destroy Jewish
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Source: The Arab Higher Committee
The Documentary Record. Original German, p. 439.
Berlin, April 28, 1942
In response to your letter and to the
accompanying communication of His Excellency, Prime Minister Raschid Ali
El Gailani, and confirming the terms of our conversation, I have the honour
to inform you:
The German Government appreciates fully
the confidence of the Arab peoples in the Axis Powers in their aims and
in their determination to conduct the fight against the common enemy until
victory is achieved. The German Government has the greatest understanding
for the national aspirations of the Arab countries as have been expressed
by you both and the greatest sympathy for the sufferings of your peoples
under British oppression.
I have therefore the honour to assure
you, in complete agreement with the Italian Government, that the independence
and freedom of the suffering Arab countries presently subjected to British
oppression, is also one of the aims of the German Government.
Germany is consequently ready to give
all her support to the oppressed Arab countries in their fight against
British domination, for the fulfillment of their national aim to independence
and sovereignty and for the destruction of the Jewish National Home in
As previously agreed, the content of
this letter should be maintained absolutely secret until we decide otherwise.
I beg your Eminence to be assured of
my highest esteem and consideration.
To His Eminence
the Grossmufti of Palestine
Amin El Husseini.
5) The Mufti Asks Arab Americans
Not to Support FDR
ADDRESS TO AMERICAN ARABS
Excerpts from a Radio Speech by Haj Amin
March 19, 1943, in Rome
The Arabs and Moslems will not
be deceived by Britain once again because not only have they known its
true intentions but they have also known those of Britain's allies-America-and
I want to draw the attention of the Arab emigrants in America to this fact,
reminding them of their glorious past when they supported the National
movement. I would also like to remind them that their efforts will be wasted
if, God forbid, America and her Allies may be victorious in this War because
at such a time the Arabs will never rise again. I therefore know that those
Arab emigrants in America will refrain from helping Roosevelt or taking
part in a war which he brought on to his country.
Source: The Arab War Effort, A Documented
If those Allies win this war the Jewish
influence will be the arbiter in the world resources and one can thus imagine
the future of the Arabs and Moslems, and the dangers which they are exposed
to in their fatherlands and beliefs if the Jews and their Allies dominate
them and spread the latent hatred on to them.
Then the world will become Hell--God forbid:
But Allah is too just and merciful to grant such murderous violators any
victory. We are sure that victory will be ours and that of our friends.
We have not the slightest doubt about that, we shall not slacken our struggle
nor will we be deterred or quietened. Do not be deceived by the allegations
of your enemies, because you know full well about their intrigues, and
be sure that the nation which fights, sacrifices and awaits will be the
victorious one in the end.
6) Himmler to The Mufti
November 2, 1943, message from Heinrich
Himmler to an anti-Balfour Declaration meeting:
To the Grand Mufti:
Source: Tne Arab Higher Committee
The Documentary Record.
The National Socialist Movement of
Greater Germany has, since its begining, inscribed upon its flag
the fight against world Jewry. It has, therefore, followed with particular
sympathy the struggle of the freedom-loving Arabians, especially in Palestine,
against the Jewish interlopers. It is in the recognition of this enemy
and of the common struggle against him that lies the firm foundation of
the natural alliance that exists between National-Socialist-Greater Germany
and the freedom-loving Moslems of the whole world. In this spirit I am
sending you on the anniversary of the infamous Balfour Declaration my hearty
greetings and wishes for the successful pursuit of your struggle until
the certain final victory.
Signed: Reichsfuehrer-S.S. Heinrich
7) The Mufti Communicates Anger to Ribbentrop
for the Germans' Release of Jews in 1944
Berlin July 25, 1944
Source: The Arab Committee .... The Documentary
To His Excellency
The Minister for Foreign Affairs,
I have previously called the attention
of your Excellency to the constant attempts of the Jews to emigrate from
Europe in order to reach Palestine, and asked your Excellency to undertake
the necessary steps so as to prevent the Jews from emigrating. I had also
sent you a letter, under date of June 5, 1944, in regard to the plan for
an exchange of Egyptians living in Germany with Palestinian Germans, in
which I asked you to exclude the Jews from this plan of exchange. I have,
however, learned that the Jews did depart on July 2, 1944, and I am afraid
that further groups of Jews will leave for Palestine from Germany and France
to be exchanged for Palestinian Germans.
This exchange on the part of the Germans
would encourage the Balkan countries likewise to send their Jews to Palestine.
This step would be incomprehensible to the Arabs and Moslems after your
Excellency's declaration of November 2, 1943 that "the destruction of the
so-called Jewish national home in Palestine is an immutable part of the
policy of the greater German Reich" and it would create in them a feeling
of keen disappointment.
It is for this reason that I ask your
Excellency to do all that is necessary to prohibit the emigration of Jews
to Palestine, and in this way your Excellency would give a new practical
example of the policy of the naturally allied and friendly Germany towards
the Arab Nation.
Mufti Asks Hungary to Send Jews to Poland
An a Sequel to This Request
400,000 Jews Were Subsequently Killed
Source: The Arab Higher Committee. Its Origins,
Personnel and Purposes. Documentary Record Submitted to the United Nations,
May 1947, by the Nation Associates.
June 28, 1943
The Miniater of Foreign Affairs for
You no doubt know of the struggle between
the Arabs and Jews of Palestine, that It has been and what it Is, a long
and bloody fight, brought about by the desire of the Jews to create a national
home, a Jewish State in the Near East, with the help and protection of
England and the United States. In fact, behind it lies the hope which the
Jews have never relinquished, namely, the domination of the whole world
through this Important, strategic center, Palestine, In effect their program
has, among other purposes, always aimed at the encouragement of Jewish
migration to Palestine and the other countries of the Near East. However,
the war, as well as the understanding which the members of the Three-Power
Pact have of the responsibility of the Jews for its outbreak and finally
their evil Intentions towards these countries which protected them until
now - all these are reasons for placing them under such vigilant control
an will definitely stop their emigration to Palestine or elsewhere.
Lately I have been informed of the
uninterrupted efforts made by the English and the Jews to obtain permission
for the Jews living in your country to leave for Palestine via Bulgaria
I have also learned that these negotiations
were successful since some of the Jews of Hungary have had the satisfaction
of emigrating to Palestine via Bulgaria and Turkey and that a group of
these Jaws arrived In Palestine towards the end of last March. The Jewish
Agency. which supervises the execution of the Jewish program, has published
a bulletin which contains Important information on the current negotiations
between the Uglish Goverment and the governments of other interested states
to send the Jews of Balkan countries to Palestine. The Jewish Agency quoted,
among other things, its receipt of a sufficient number of immigration certificates
for 900 Jewish children to be transported from Hungary, accompanied by
To authorize these Jews to leave your
country under the above circumstances and in this way, would by no means
solve the Jewish problem and would certainly not protect your country against
their evil influence - far from it! - for this escape would make It possible
for them to communicate and combine freely with their racial brethren in
enamy countries in order to strengthen their position and to exert a more
dangerous influence on the outcome of the war, especially since, as a consequence
of their long stay in your country. they are necessarily in a position
to know many of your secrets and also about your war effort. All this comes
on top of the terrible damage done to the friendly Arab nation which has
taken its place at your side in this war and which cherishes for your country
the most sincere feelings and the very best wishes.
This is the reason why I ask your excellency
to permit me to draw your attention to the necessity of preventing the
Jews from leaving your country for Palestine: and If there are reasons
which make their removal necessary, it would be indispensable and Infinitely
preferable to send them to other countries where they would find themselves
under active control, for example, in Poland, in order thereby to protect
oneself from their menace and avoid the consequent damages
Hungary Promises to End Jewish Problem
Source: The Arab Higher Committee. Its
Origins, Personnel and Purposes. Documentary Record Submitted to the United
Nations, May 1947, by the Nation Associates.
in from the PLO Daily "Intifada" December 14, 2000, by Palestine
2. The Standard
Jewish Encyclopedia, 1959
population estimates compiled from the American Jewish Yearbook, 1983 edition,
George Gruen, editor, published in New York by the American Jewish Committee;
Government of Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem, 1983 figures.
Figures for 1948 compiled from the World Organization of Jews from Arab
Countries (WOJAC); Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, "The Position of
the Jewish Communities in Oriental Countries," a memorandum submitted by
the Jewish Agency; Hayyirn Cohen, The Jews of the Middle East, 1973, Halsted
Press, New York.
Khaibar, Qaraiza; see Chapter 8.
6, 1975, Rashad Nowilaty, Saudi Arabian Ambassador to The Hague.
established its own precedent in 1885. President Grover Cleveland's choice
for United States representative in Vienna, Anthony Keiley of Virginia,
was turned down because, "the position of a foreign envoy wedded to a Jewess
by civil marriage would be untenable and even impossible in Vienna," May
1885, Foreign Relations, p. 48. When the Secretary of State objected to
"infraction" of an "essential principle" -never to "inquire into" or "even
hear testimony ... upon the religious belief of any official," the Austrian
government found a different reason for its objection: an ostensible "want
of political tact" exhibited by appointee Keiley on an earlier visit to
Vienna. Ibid, p. 55. President Cleveland resolved the matter in his address
to the United States Congress on December 8, 1885: ". . . The Government
of Austria-Hungary invited this Government to take cognizance of certain
exceptions, based upon allegations against the personal acceptability of
Mr. Keiley, the appointed envoy, asking that in view thereof, the appointment
should be withdrawn. The reasons advanced were such as could not be acquiesced
in, without violation of my oath of office and the precepts of the Constitution
since they necessarily involved a limitation in favor of a foreign government
upon the right of selection by the Executive, and required such an application
of a religious test as a qualification for office under the United States
as would have resulted in the practical disfranchisement of a large class
of our citizens and the abandonment of a vital principle in our Government....
I have made no new nomination, and the interests of this Government in
Vienna are now in the care of the secretary of legation, acting as charge
d'affaires ad interim."
by Max Van Der Stoel, Dutch Foreign Minister to the Dutch Parliament, The
Hague, March 12, 1975, regarding cancellation of official visit to Saudi
by Anthony Sampson, Observer Review, "Desert Diary," March 9, 1975, London.
Nationality Law, Article 3(3) of Law No. 6 of 1954, Official Gazette No.
1171, February 16, 1954.
Mufi of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini was later the notorious Nazi who
mixed Nazi propaganda and Islam. He was wanted for war crimes in
Bosnia by Yugoslavia. His mix of militant propagandizing Islam was
an inspriation for both Yasser Arafat and Saddam Husein. He was also a
close relative of Yasser Arafat and the current Temple Mount Mufti. "Arafat's
actual name was Abd al-Rahman abd al-Bauf Arafat al-Qud al-Husseini. He
shortened it to obscure his kinship with the notorious Nazi and ex-Mufti
of Jerusalem, Haj Muhammed Amin al-Husseini." Howard M. Sachar, A HISTORY
OF ISRAEL (New York: Knopf, 1976). The Bet Agron International Center
in Jerusalem interviewed Arafat's brother and sister, who described the
Mufti as a cousin (family member) with tremendous influence on young Yassir
after the Mufti returned from Berlin to Cairo. Yasser Arafat himself keeps
his exact lineage and birthplace secret. Saddam Hussein was raised
in the house of his uncle Khayrallah Tulfah, who was a leader in the Mufti's
pro-Nazi coup in Iraq in May 1941.
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